3.3.3. Database Migration Scripts
A CUBA-application project always contains two sets of scripts:
Scripts to create the database, intended for the creation of the database from scratch. They contain a set of the DDL and DML operators, which create an empty database schema that is fully consistent with the current state of the data model of the application. These scripts can also fill the database with the necessary initialization data.
Scripts to update the database, intended for bringing the database structure to the current state of the data model from any of the previous states.
CUBA Studio automatically creates database migration scripts for your changing data model, see its documentation. The information below can be helpful for better understanding of the process and for creating Groovy-based migration scripts not supported in Studio.
When changing the data model, it is necessary to reproduce the corresponding change of the database schema in Create and Update scripts. For example, when adding the
address attribute to the
Customer entity, it is necessary to:
Change the table creation script:
create table SALES_CUSTOMER ( ID varchar(36) not null, CREATE_TS timestamp, CREATED_BY varchar(50), NAME varchar(100), ADDRESS varchar(200), -- added column primary key (ID) )
Add an update script, which modifies the same table:
alter table SALES_CUSTOMER add ADDRESS varchar(200)
Please note that Studio update scripts generator does not track changes in Column definition entity attributes and
sqlTypeof custom datatypes. If you changed them, create appropriate update scripts manually.
The create scripts for the main data store are located in the
/db/init directory of the
core module. Create scripts for additional data stores (if any) must be located in
/db/init_<datastore_name> directory. For each type of DBMS supported by the application, a separate set of scripts is created and located in the subdirectory specified in cuba.dbmsType application property, for example
/db/init/postgres. Create scripts names should have the following format
The update scripts for the main data store are located in the
/db/update directory of the
core module. Update scripts for additional data stores (if any) must be located in
/db/update_<datastore_name> directory. For each type of DBMS supported by the application, a separate set of scripts is created and located in the subdirectory specified in cuba.dbmsType application property, for example,
The update scripts can be of two types: with the
*.groovy extension. The primary way to update the database is with SQL scripts. Groovy scripts are only executed by the server mechanism to launch database scripts, therefore they are mainly used at the production stage, in cases when migration or import of the data that cannot be implemented in pure SQL. If you want to skip Groovy update scripts, you can run the following in command line:
delete from sys_db_changelog where script_name like '%groovy' and create_ts > (now() - interval '1 hour')
The update scripts should have names, which form the correct sequence of their execution when sorted in the alphabetical order (usually, it is a chronological sequence of their creation). Therefore, when creating such scripts manually, it is recommended to specify the name of the update scripts in the following format:
yy is a year,
mm is a month,
dd is a day, and
description is a short description of the script. For example,
121003-addCodeToCategoryAttribute.sql. Studio also adheres to this format when generating scripts automatically.
In order to be executed by the
updateDb task, the groovy scripts should have
.upgrade.groovy extension and the same naming logic. Post update actions are not allowed in that scripts, while the same
ds (access to datasource) and
log (access to logging) variables are used for the data binding. The execution of groovy scripts can be disabled by setting
executeGroovy = false in the
updateDb task of
It is possible to group update scripts into subdirectories, however, the path to the script with the subdirectory should not break the chronological sequence. For example, subdirectories can be created by using year, or by year and month.