3.5.2.4.4. Validator

Validator is designed to check values entered into visual components.

Validation and input type checking should be differentiated. If a given component (e.g., TextField) data type is set to anything different than string (this can happen when binding to an entity attribute or setting datatype), then the component will not allow the user to enter a value that does not comply with this data type. When the component loses focus or when the user presses Enter, the error notification will be shown to the user.

On the other hand, validation does not act immediately on data entry or focus loss, but rather when the component’s validate() method is invoked. It means that the component (and the entity attribute that it is linked to) may temporarily contain a value, which does not comply with the conditions of validation. It should not be a problem because the validated fields are typically located in editor screens, which automatically invoke validation for all their fields before commit. If the component is located not in an edit screen, its validate() method should be invoked explicitly in the screen controller.

The framework contains the set of implementations for the most frequently used validators, which can be used in your project:

In a screen XML-descriptor, such component validators can be defined in a nested validators element. Validator can be added using CUBA Studio interface. Below is an example of adding a validator to the TextField component:

gui validator

Each validator is a Prototype Bean, and if you want to use validators from Java code, you need to get them using BeanLocator.

Some of the validators use Groovy string in error message. It means that it is possible to pass parameters to the error message (e.g., $value). These parameters take account of user’s locale.

You can use a custom Java class as a validator. It should implement the Consumer interface.

In a screen XML-descriptor, a custom validator can be defined in a nested validator element.

If the validator is implemented as an internal class, it should be declared with a static modifier, and its name should be separated by "$", for example:

<validator class="com.sample.sales.gui.AddressEdit$ZipValidator"/>

A validator class can be assigned to a component not only using a screen XML-descriptor but also programmatically – by submitting a validator instance into the component’s addValidator() method.

Example of creating a validator class for zip codes:

public class ZipValidator implements Consumer<String> {
    @Override
    public void accept(String s) throws ValidationException {
        if (s != null && s.length() != 6)
            throw new ValidationException("Zip must be of 6 characters length");
    }
}

Example of using a zip code validator for the TextField component:

<textField id="zipField" property="zip">
    <validator class="com.company.sample.web.ZipValidator"/>
</textField>

Example of setting a validator programmatically in a screen controller:

zipField.addValidator(value -> {
    if (value != null && value.length() != 6)
        throw new ValidationException("Zip must be of 6 characters length");
});

Below we consider predefined validators.

DecimalMaxValidator

It checks that value is less than or equal to the specified maximum. Supported types: BigDecimal, BigInteger, Long, Integer, and String that represents BigDecimal value with the current locale.

It has the following attributes:

  • value − maximum value (required);

  • inclusive − when set to true, the value should be less than or equal to the specified maximum value. The default value is true;

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value and $max keys for formatted output.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.decimalMaxInclusive

  • validation.constraints.decimalMax

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <decimalMax value="1000" inclusive="false" message="Value '$value' cannot be greater than `$max`"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

DecimalMaxValidator maxValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(DecimalMaxValidator.NAME, new BigDecimal(1000));
numberField.addValidator(maxValidator);
DecimalMinValidator

It checks that value is greater than or equal to the specified minimum. Supported types: BigDecimal, BigInteger, Long, Integer, and String that represents BigDecimal value with the current locale.

It has the following attributes:

  • value − minimum value (required);

  • inclusive − when set to true, the value should be greater than or equal to the specified minimum value. The default value is true;

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value and $min keys for formatted output.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.decimalMinInclusive

  • validation.constraints.decimalMin

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <decimalMin value="100" inclusive="false" message="Value '$value' cannot be less than `$min`"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

DecimalMinValidator minValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(DecimalMinValidator.NAME, new BigDecimal(100));
numberField.addValidator(minValidator);
DigitsValidator

It checks that value is a number within the accepted range. Supported types: BigDecimal, BigInteger, Long, Integer, and String that represents BigDecimal value with the current locale.

It has the following attributes:

  • integer − count of numbers in the integer part (required);

  • fraction − count of numbers in the fraction part (required);

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value, $integer, and $fraction keys for formatted output.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.digits

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <digits integer="3" fraction="2" message="Value '$value' is out of bounds ($integer digits are expected in integer part and $fraction in fractional part)"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

DigitsValidator digitsValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(DigitsValidator.NAME, 3, 2);
numberField.addValidator(digitsValidator);
DoubleMaxValidator

It checks that value is less than or equal to the specified maximum. Supported types: Double, and String that represents Double value with the current locale.

It has the following attributes:

  • value − maximum value (required);

  • inclusive − when set to true, the value should be less than or equal to the specified maximum value. The default value is true;

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value and $max keys for formatted output.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.decimalMaxInclusive

  • validation.constraints.decimalMax

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <doubleMax value="1000" inclusive="false" message="Value '$value' cannot be greater than `$max`"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

DoubleMaxValidator maxValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(DoubleMaxValidator.NAME, new Double(1000));
numberField.addValidator(maxValidator);
DoubleMinValidator

It checks that value is greater than or equal to the specified minimum. Supported types: Double, and String that represents Double value with the current locale.

It has the following attributes:

  • value − minimum value (required);

  • inclusive − when set to true, the value should be greater than or equal to the specified minimum value. The default value is true;

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value and $min keys for formatted output.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.decimalMinInclusive

  • validation.constraints.decimalMin

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <doubleMin value="100" inclusive="false" message="Value '$value' cannot be less than `$min`"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

DoubleMinValidator minValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(DoubleMinValidator.NAME, new Double(100));
numberField.addValidator(minValidator);
FutureOrPresentValidator

It validates that date or time is in the future or present. It doesn’t use Groovy string, so there are no parameters you can pass to the error message. Supported types: java.util.Date, LocalDate, LocalDateTime, LocalTime, OffsetDateTime, OffsetTime.

It has the following attributes:

  • checkSeconds − when set to true, the validator should compare date or time with seconds and nanos. The default value is false;

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.futureOrPresent

Layout descriptor usage:

<dateField id="dateTimePropertyField" property="dateTimeProperty">
    <validators>
        <futureOrPresent checkSeconds="true"/>
    </validators>
</dateField>

Java code usage:

FutureOrPresentValidator futureOrPresentValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(FutureOrPresentValidator.NAME);
dateField.addValidator(futureOrPresentValidator);
FutureValidator

It validates that date or time is in the future. It doesn’t use Groovy string, so there are no parameters you can pass to the error message. Supported types: java.util.Date, LocalDate, LocalDateTime, LocalTime, OffsetDateTime, OffsetTime.

It has the following attributes:

  • checkSeconds − when set to true, the validator should compare date or time with seconds and nanos. The default value is false;

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.future

Layout descriptor usage:

<timeField id="localTimeField" property="localTimeProperty" showSeconds="true">
    <validators>
        <future checkSeconds="true"/>
    </validators>
</timeField>

Java code usage:

FutureValidator futureValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(FutureValidator.NAME);
timeField.addValidator(futureValidator);
MaxValidator

It checks that value is less than or equal to the specified maximum. Supported types: BigDecimal, BigInteger, Long, Integer.

It has the following attributes:

  • value − maximum value (required);

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value and $max keys for formatted output.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.max

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <max value="20500" message="Value '$value' must be less than or equal to '$max'"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

MaxValidator maxValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(MaxValidator.NAME, 20500);
numberField.addValidator(maxValidator);
MinValidator

It checks that value is greater than or equal to the specified minimum. Supported types: BigDecimal, BigInteger, Long, Integer.

It has the following attributes:

  • value − minimum value (required);

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value, and $min keys for formatted output.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.min

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <min value="30" message="Value '$value' must be greater than or equal to '$min'"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

MinValidator minValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(MinValidator.NAME, 30);
numberField.addValidator(minValidator);
NegativeOrZeroValidator

It checks that value is less than or equal 0. Supported types: BigDecimal, BigInteger, Long, Integer, Double, Float.

It has the following attributes:

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value key for formatted output. Note, that Float doesn’t have its own datatype and won’t be formatted with the user’s locale.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.negativeOrZero

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <negativeOrZero message="Value '$value' must be less than or equal to 0"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

NegativeOrZeroValidator negativeOrZeroValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(NegativeOrZeroValidator.NAME);
numberField.addValidator(negativeOrZeroValidator);
NegativeValidator

It checks that value is strictly less than 0. Supported types: BigDecimal, BigInteger, Long, Integer, Double, Float.

It has the following attributes:

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value key for formatted output. Note, that Float doesn’t have its own datatype and won’t be formatted with the user’s locale.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.negative

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <negative message="Value '$value' should be less than 0"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

NegativeValidator negativeValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(NegativeValidator.NAME);
numberField.addValidator(negativeValidator);
NotBlankValidator

It checks that value contains at least one non-whitespace character. It doesn’t use Groovy string, so there are no parameters you can pass to the error message. Supported type: String.

It has the following attributes:

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.notBlank

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="textField" property="textProperty">
    <validators>
        <notBlank message="Value must contain at least one non-whitespace character"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

NotBlankValidator notBlankValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(NotBlankValidator.NAME);
textField.addValidator(notBlankValidator);
NotEmptyValidator

It checks that value is not null and not empty. Supported types: Collection and String.

It has the following attributes:

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value key for formatted output, only for String type.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.notEmpty

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="textField" property="textProperty">
    <validators>
        <notBlank message="Value must contain at least one non-whitespace character"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

NotBlankValidator notBlankValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(NotBlankValidator.NAME);
textField.addValidator(notBlankValidator);
NotNullValidator

It checks that value is not null. It doesn’t use Groovy string, so there are no parameters you can pass to the error message.

It has the following attributes:

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.notNull

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <notNull/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

NotNullValidator notNullValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(NotNullValidator.NAME);
numberField.addValidator(notNullValidator);
PastOrPresentValidator

It validates that date or time is in the past or present. It doesn’t use Groovy string, so there are no parameters you can pass to the error message. Supported types: java.util.Date, LocalDate, LocalDateTime, LocalTime, OffsetDateTime, OffsetTime.

It has the following attributes:

  • checkSeconds − when setting to true, the validator should compare date or time with seconds and nanos. The default value is false;

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.pastOrPresent

Layout descriptor usage:

<dateField id="dateTimeField" property="dateTimeProperty">
    <validators>
        <pastOrPresent/>
    </validators>
</dateField>

Java code usage:

PastOrPresentValidator pastOrPresentValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(PastOrPresentValidator.NAME);
numberField.addValidator(pastOrPresentValidator);
PastValidator

It validates that date or time is in the past. It doesn’t use Groovy string, so there are no parameters you can pass to the error message. Supported types: java.util.Date, LocalDate, LocalDateTime, LocalTime, OffsetDateTime, OffsetTime.

It has the following attributes:

  • checkSeconds − when setting to true, the validator should compare date or time with seconds and nanos. The default value is false;

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.past

Layout descriptor usage:

<dateField id="dateTimeField" property="dateTimeProperty">
    <validators>
        <pastOrPresent/>
    </validators>
</dateField>

Java code usage:

PastOrPresentValidator pastOrPresentValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(PastOrPresentValidator.NAME);
numberField.addValidator(pastOrPresentValidator);
PositiveOrZeroValidator

It checks that value is greater than or equal to 0. Supported types: BigDecimal, BigInteger, Long, Integer, Double, Float.

It has the following attributes:

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value key for formatted output. Note, that Float doesn’t have its own datatype and won’t be formatted with the user’s locale.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.positiveOrZero

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <positiveOrZero message="Value '$value' should be greater than or equal to '0'"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

PositiveOrZeroValidator positiveOrZeroValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(PositiveOrZeroValidator.NAME);
numberField.addValidator(positiveOrZeroValidator);
PositiveValidator

It checks that value is strictly greater than 0. Supported types: BigDecimal, BigInteger, Long, Integer, Double, Float.

It has the following attributes:

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value key for formatted output. Note, that Float doesn’t have its own datatype and won’t be formatted with the user’s locale.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.positive

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="numberField" property="numberProperty">
    <validators>
        <positive message="Value '$value' should be greater than '0'"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

PositiveValidator positiveValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(PositiveValidator.NAME);
numberField.addValidator(positiveValidator);
RegexpValidator

It checks that String value is matched with specified regular expression. Supported type: String.

It has the following attributes:

  • regexp − a regular expression to match (required);

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value key for formatted output.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.regexp

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="textField" property="textProperty">
    <validators>
        <regexp regexp="[a-z]*"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

Java code usage:

RegexpValidator regexpValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(RegexpValidator.NAME, "[a-z]*");
textField.addValidator(regexpValidator);
SizeValidator

It checks that value is in a specific range. Supported types: Collection and String.

It has the following attributes:

  • min − a minimum value (with inclusive), cannot be less than 0. The default value is 0;

  • max − a maximum value (with inclusive), cannot be less than 0. The default value is Integer.MAX_VALUE;

  • message − a custom message displayed to a user when validation fails. This message can contain $value (only for String type), $min, $max keys for formatted output.

Default message keys:

  • validation.constraints.collectionSizeRange

  • validation.constraints.sizeRange

Layout descriptor usage:

<textField id="textField" property="textProperty">
    <validators>
        <size min="2" max="10" message="Value '$value' should be between '$min' and '$max'"/>
    </validators>
</textField>

<twinColumn id="twinColumn">
    <validators>
        <size min="2" max="4" message="Collection size must be between $min and $max"/>
    </validators>
</twinColumn>

Java code usage:

SizeValidator sizeValidator = beanLocator.getPrototype(SizeValidator.NAME);
textField.addValidator(sizeValidator);